A puppy 0 to 2 years old.

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Mattie
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A puppy 0 to 2 years old.

Post by Mattie » Fri Aug 15, 2008 10:25 am

This is the stages of a puppy from birth to 2 years old. It may help you understand your pup.



Prenatal Period
Conception to Birth

Neonatal Period 0-13 days


Puppies are not able to regulate temperature or eliminating without their mother's stimulation

Transition Period 13-21 days

Ears and eyes gradually open. Best time to introduce other species and novel items

Awareness Period 21-23 days

Rapid time of sensory development. Best time to introduce new floor surfaces and auditory stimuli

Canine Socialisation Period 21-49 days

Pup learns how to stop mother's discipline and how to be a dog.

During 4th and 5th weeks,

short car rides may be introduced and stimuli such as radio, dishwasher, TV hair dryer vacuum cleaner introduced.

During the 5th and 6th week i

ndividual attention with humans should be given daily.

Human Socialisation Period 7-12 weeks

Best time for rehoming. Pfaffenberger believed that from 7 to 16 weeks of the puppy's life his basic character is set by what he is taught.

The pup should be socialised to as many pleasant but varied experiences as possible during this time.

Fear Impact Sub-period 8-10 weeks

Experiences that a pup perceives as traumatic during this time tend to be generalised and may affect them for the rest of their lives.

Seniority Classification Period 12-16 weeks

The age of cutting teeth and apron strings. By 16 weeks, the puppy's emotional makeup is fully developed.

Flight Instinct Period 4-8 months

There is a time during this period lasting 2-4 weeks when the pup will test his wings. He won't come when called and will run away when the owner tries to put on the lead.

Second Fear Impact Period 6-14 months

In large breeds, this stage may last longer. This period shows a fear of new situations and novel objects

Young Adulthood 18-24 months

Many dogs may show a rise in aggression levels during this time. They may become protective and territorial and take advantage of any relaxation of the guidelines set by the owner.
Last edited by Mattie on Thu Sep 23, 2010 2:38 am, edited 1 time in total.
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griffin
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Post by griffin » Sat Aug 16, 2008 11:29 am

Thanks Matte, this explains perfectly what Eddie is going through right now..
Young Adulthood 18-24 months

Many dogs may show a rise in aggression levels during this time. They may become protective and territorial and take advantage of any relaxation of the guidelines set by the owner.
Geesh, just what I need with two teenagers, human, in the house... :roll: :P Thankfully today with my back out, he is being a typical teenager-doesn't want to do anything right now but lay around & sleep... :D

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Noobs
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Re: A puppy 0 to 2 years old.

Post by Noobs » Wed Aug 27, 2008 2:03 pm

Mattie wrote:
Young Adulthood 18-24 months

Many dogs may show a rise in aggression levels during this time. They may become protective and territorial and take advantage of any relaxation of the guidelines set by the owner.
My black lab mix is 12 months old and he hasn't been vocal at all since we got him from the shelter at 8 months old. A few weeks ago he started growling and barking at cats if they are standing still and/or staring at him (he just watches them intently if they are just walking around) and also at certain dogs - dogs that I've been told by the owner are "mean" or "doesn't like dogs". When he starts growling I move him from wherever we are so it doesn't escalate, but if I don't see it in time he does start barking and I have to pull him back, which thankfully isn't that hard as he's on a no-pull harness most of the time. And then I have to give him a stern "ah-ah" until he calms down, which he does pretty quickly. Is this part of the stage you mention in the quote above? I know it's a little early but I am getting concerned; I hope Murphy isn't becoming aggressive.

He's gotten too rough sometimes at the dog park because when he's playing he gets carried away, so there have been a couple of scuffles. I don't want to stop taking him because I want him to keep meeting and playing with other dogs. So these days as soon as he starts growling and I can tell it's not play (hair on his back up, tail fluffing out, also his facial expression), or if I see a scuffle brewing, I put him on the leash and give him a time out by standing off to the side with him sitting until he's calm. If something does escalate he gets a cheerful, "Okay, time to go!" and we leave. Whether this has to do with the question I posed, I'm not sure, but I thought it would be worth a mention.

Anyway that was a digression. I just want to know if this could be a stage and what can I do to make him more confident. We don't clicker every day and I am trying to do that more. He gets plenty of exercise - 2 miles trotting/running alongside my bike to and from the dog park 4-5 times a week, and a 30-40 minute brisk walk on days we don't bike. So do you think he's going through a stage, or should I be worried?

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Nettle
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Post by Nettle » Wed Aug 27, 2008 2:11 pm

It's a stage and you are handling it well :D You control the walk, you control the interaction with other dogs, and if he shows bad manners, he is taken out of the situation at once. I love you.

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Post by Mollysmom » Wed Aug 27, 2008 2:38 pm

hehe I rofled

I agree you're handling the situation beautifully, and while I wont propose marriage I do say Kudos to you!

keep up the good work
(PS, I'm impressed that you can get him to run along side the bike, Molly's one of those goobers who likes to lean against you, which means I trip a lot on walks... I'm scared to death we'll both end up disemboweled if I try to run her with the bike!)
~* Proud Mommy of a Mix Breed *~
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"If your dog doesn't like someone you probably shouldn't either." - Unknown

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Post by Noobs » Thu Aug 28, 2008 7:55 am

Thank you, both of you for your comments. I am not going to be worried anymore and just do my best to diffuse any situations (I tried Victoria's method of distracting and giving treats for being quiet when the plumber came last week and it worked).
Mollysmom wrote: (PS, I'm impressed that you can get him to run along side the bike, Molly's one of those goobers who likes to lean against you, which means I trip a lot on walks... I'm scared to death we'll both end up disemboweled if I try to run her with the bike!)
Well, when I tried biking him with the regular leash, it didn't go very well. I actually use this product, which he took to on the first day. Now when he sees the bike he runs toward it and positions himself right where he needs to be to attach his collar.

http://walkydogusa.com/dog-biking-product.htm

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Post by Mollysmom » Thu Aug 28, 2008 10:11 am

thanks Noobs :) I still don't know if I'm brave enough but at least now I can say its the courage that fails rather than the practicality
~* Proud Mommy of a Mix Breed *~
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"If your dog doesn't like someone you probably shouldn't either." - Unknown

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Post by Noobs » Thu Aug 28, 2008 12:37 pm

I should clarify that Murphy wears a harness when running with my bike - I don't attach him by the collar.

Mollysmom
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Post by Mollysmom » Thu Aug 28, 2008 1:50 pm

oh un-necessary! I had no doubt that you'd run him with a harness on that contraption!
(thanks for clarifying for others however)
~* Proud Mommy of a Mix Breed *~
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"If your dog doesn't like someone you probably shouldn't either." - Unknown

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Noobs
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Post by Noobs » Wed Sep 03, 2008 9:00 am

It appears Murphy has started growling at certain people when they pass our apartment when we're sitting on the porch. He doesn't do it to everyone, I guess when he sees someone as a threat - this morning it was a guy wearing a hooded sweatshirt, then two guys with duffel bags, and the "mean dog" from before. Each time I stayed calm and gave him a quiet ah-ah and put my fingers on his collar even though he didn't try to lunge. He settled down pretty quickly and even lay down on his side with his head down. I wasn't prepared with treats, but I suppose I should have some with me in the future. He likes sitting on the porch for a few minutes after our morning walk (before breakfast) so I don't want to stop doing that.

Yesterday we were on a friend's porch for an hour and lots of people and dogs passed by and he just watched them go by. My friend's cat even went to the door and they looked at each other through the glass door (that time I had little training biscuits so that kept his distracted).

Is it a confidence thing, or does he think he has to protect me? I thought I was projecting calm but maybe not? Any suggestions? Should I perhaps do his clicker training on the porch or something?

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Dog park incident-Advice wanted

Post by i_are_chanel » Sun Oct 19, 2008 11:21 am

My dog Charlie is 7, going on 8, months old. I have been taking him to the dog park since he first had his shots, because I know how important it is to socialize your dog. He is a long haired chiuhuahua + dauchsand + papillion mix. He's about 10 lbs. My other dog is a golden retriever black lab mix, so he has never been afraid of other dogs at the dog park... :lol: But after reading the "Second fear factor" in this post, I am afraid that the incident that happend at the dog park yesterday may have more affect on him...

Incident :arrow: :
First, I want to say that because he is so small some bigger dogs seem to be like, "Oh my god! What IS that? Is...Is that A DOG?" And they get way excited :lol: I believe because a lot of bigger dogs don't get socialized with smaller dogs. 98% of the time they don't hurt him. Dogs are very smart and most realize how big they are. Charlie loves to run with the big dogs, and learned quickly how to get out of the way of their feet. He's been accidently stepped on only a few times, Mostly by Lexi (my other dog) when we first got him
Yesterday, we were at the park and it was getting close to dinner so most people were leaving. Lexi really needs to excercise, so dogs or no, I try to stay over an hour with her at the park. Or else she is unbearable at home. Well, this new dog came in the gate and when he got let off his leash, he immediately went after Charlie. He chased him....Charlie got trampled....and since I've seen this happen a time or two before it usually ends up with him yelping, the dog going "Oh no! I'm sorry! Are you okay??" Because it is usually an accident.... They are running and he happens to be slower because his legs are shorter. But this dog just kept after him. His owner, a young female, did not try as hard as she could have to control her dog. Not only that, but he was clearly not listening to her calls. After a few more tramples and rolls in the dirt (and me screaming at the chick to make her dog stop it :evil: ) Charlie made it under a bench and the owner put her hand up (like a stop motion) said, "Hey! You're okay!" (She had this snotty tone that made me think that Charlie was over-reacting to her dog's actions) She then Turns around to approach her dog. He maintained his distance, as she walked and tried to get him to come to her (which took a few mins). I picked up Charlie and held him tight. He was shaking violently. He was so scared. I sat on the bench with him and tried to calm him down with my voice. I was not about to leave, even after the incident. (and knowing Lexi hadn't run out all her energy) and ESPECIALLY since the owner neither looked at me nor apologized to me for what her dog did to Charlie. :evil: My animal instincts/motherly instincts had kicked in, and although I wanted to scream at her, I just stood up, making it apparent I was NOT about to leave. (I was there first. How DARE she think I should leave after her dog behaved so forcefully). A few minutes later, she did leave with her dog. Charlie would did not want to get out of my arms for at least 30 minutes after that. And he was not even going to LET the boxer that came in approach, let alone smell him. Period. He barked at the boxer when he tried to jump on me and look at what I was holding, and Charlie barked a bark I have not heard him do before.....it was a fearful bark. Usually he barks from excitement, "Oh! OH MY GOSH! A DOG! A DOG! LOOK A DOG." But this bark was a "Get the hell away from me now" bark. Then, the owner and the dog that had chased and trampled him came back. Charlie went nuts. I could tell he was cursing that dog for scaring him so badly earlier. And the other people at the dog park whom I had told about the incident all were like "Wow...He knows who did it." And he did.
After the incident, he didn't want to get down from my arms. I eventually could get him to walk about 6 feet from me before we left, but the second a bigger dog would come near him he was darting towards me and scratching at my legs, telling me to pick him up.
Because he is in the 6-9 month old range, I am afraid this will make him afraid of other big dogs, which he never was before..... The rest of the time I was there I would reassure him none of the dogs were going to hurt him.....and of course none of them did.
Is there any thing I can do to make sure he is not permanently and negatively affected by this???
Lexi-3/4 golden retriever + 1/4 black lab. Bday Dec 1st 2007.

Charlie-long haired chihuahua + dauchsand + papillion. Bday Feb 29th 2008.

i_are_chanel
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Dog park incident-Advice wanted

Post by i_are_chanel » Sun Oct 19, 2008 11:21 am

My dog Charlie is 7, going on 8, months old. I have been taking him to the dog park since he first had his shots, because I know how important it is to socialize your dog. He is a long haired chiuhuahua + dauchsand + papillion mix. He's about 10 lbs. My other dog is a golden retriever black lab mix, so he has never been afraid of other dogs at the dog park... :lol: But after reading the "Second fear factor" in this post, I am afraid that the incident that happend at the dog park yesterday may have more affect on him...

Incident :arrow: :
First, I want to say that because he is so small some bigger dogs seem to be like, "Oh my god! What IS that? Is...Is that A DOG?" And they get way excited :lol: I believe because a lot of bigger dogs don't get socialized with smaller dogs. 98% of the time they don't hurt him. Dogs are very smart and most realize how big they are. Charlie loves to run with the big dogs, and learned quickly how to get out of the way of their feet. He's been accidently stepped on only a few times, Mostly by Lexi (my other dog) when we first got him
Yesterday, we were at the park and it was getting close to dinner so most people were leaving. Lexi really needs to excercise, so dogs or no, I try to stay over an hour with her at the park. Or else she is unbearable at home. Well, this new dog came in the gate and when he got let off his leash, he immediately went after Charlie. He chased him....Charlie got trampled....and since I've seen this happen a time or two before it usually ends up with him yelping, the dog going "Oh no! I'm sorry! Are you okay??" Because it is usually an accident.... They are running and he happens to be slower because his legs are shorter. But this dog just kept after him. His owner, a young female, did not try as hard as she could have to control her dog. Not only that, but he was clearly not listening to her calls. After a few more tramples and rolls in the dirt (and me screaming at the chick to make her dog stop it :evil: ) Charlie made it under a bench and the owner put her hand up (like a stop motion) said, "Hey! You're okay!" (She had this snotty tone that made me think that Charlie was over-reacting to her dog's actions) She then Turns around to approach her dog. He maintained his distance, as she walked and tried to get him to come to her (which took a few mins). I picked up Charlie and held him tight. He was shaking violently. He was so scared. I sat on the bench with him and tried to calm him down with my voice. I was not about to leave, even after the incident. (and knowing Lexi hadn't run out all her energy) and ESPECIALLY since the owner neither looked at me nor apologized to me for what her dog did to Charlie. :evil: My animal instincts/motherly instincts had kicked in, and although I wanted to scream at her, I just stood up, making it apparent I was NOT about to leave. (I was there first. How DARE she think I should leave after her dog behaved so forcefully). A few minutes later, she did leave with her dog. Charlie would did not want to get out of my arms for at least 30 minutes after that. And he was not even going to LET the boxer that came in approach, let alone smell him. Period. He barked at the boxer when he tried to jump on me and look at what I was holding, and Charlie barked a bark I have not heard him do before.....it was a fearful bark. Usually he barks from excitement, "Oh! OH MY GOSH! A DOG! A DOG! LOOK A DOG." But this bark was a "Get the hell away from me now" bark. Then, the owner and the dog that had chased and trampled him came back. Charlie went nuts. I could tell he was cursing that dog for scaring him so badly earlier. And the other people at the dog park whom I had told about the incident all were like "Wow...He knows who did it." And he did.
After the incident, he didn't want to get down from my arms. I eventually could get him to walk about 6 feet from me before we left, but the second a bigger dog would come near him he was darting towards me and scratching at my legs, telling me to pick him up.
Because he is in the 6-9 month old range, I am afraid this will make him afraid of other big dogs, which he never was before..... The rest of the time I was there I would reassure him none of the dogs were going to hurt him.....and of course none of them did.
Is there any thing I can do to make sure he is not permanently and negatively affected by this???
Lexi-3/4 golden retriever + 1/4 black lab. Bday Dec 1st 2007.

Charlie-long haired chihuahua + dauchsand + papillion. Bday Feb 29th 2008.

Sarah's Mommy
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Re: A puppy 0 to 2 years old.

Post by Sarah's Mommy » Sun Aug 23, 2009 2:57 pm

Mattie wrote:Second Fear Impact Period 6-14 months

In large breeds, this stage may last longer. This period shows a fear of new situations and novel objects
This is exactly what my one year old mix is doing right now. She freaks out when the doorbell rings and people she's not around on a daily basis come in. She starts barking hysterically and hides behind the couch(still barking) and won't come out. If I hold her in my lap and try to introduce her to people, she squirms, whining, until I let her go. I try not to get mad at her, but she has a very shrill bark and it's annoying. My dad says she's very brave and threatening - as long as you stay on the other side of the room. Is there anyway I can help her get over this?

monib1969
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Re: A puppy 0 to 2 years old.

Post by monib1969 » Wed Jan 06, 2010 11:42 am

The one thing missing is that at 8 weeks the puppy needs to be separated from it's mother and litter mates, even if a new home has not been found for him. This is a critical imprinting age that if the puppy is left to be with it's mother and littermates during this time it runs a high risk of become a dog that will suffer from separation anxiety in life.

Also, if a dog has begun marker training at 8 weeks, which is when all puppies should be started, you will never have an older juvenile that won't listen when called to come. So if you buy a puppy from a breeder it is always best to buy a puppy from a breeder that is also proficient in marker training because they will understand this need for beginning his training and the groundwork will have been started with the puppy. You will not run into a problem of a run away and puppy that wont listen.

When you buy an 8 week old puppy, it is time to start marker training at that point, and as he becomes a juvenile you will also not have the problem of a runaway and dog that won't come. In our years of breeding over 350 litters, not one has ever been a runaway or a puppy that wouldn't listen. This is simply because we give all our puppy owners manuals/videos on how to continue the training and we have laid the groundwork already before they leave. All of our lines are working K-9's either in professional fields or ring sports, but this doesn't matter all puppies are like balls of clay waiting to learn. But when one waits to train at a later age, even at 8-12 months, your dog already has tons of learned behaviors that will be harder to break than if you had started him off right from day 1.

With that being said, this is why I personally feel that any Joe and Nancy shouldn't be allowed to breed whatever dogs they like, even if they are AKC registered. Because when done by responsible people who understand the puppies formittable imprinting ages you won't run into all the behavioral problems that one sees constantly and wouldn't have all the millions of dogs needlessly euthanized in the states every year for 100% fixable behavior problems.

And to the poster before me with the dog that freaks out at the doorbell and the Dad thinks it is protection. No it is showing fear aggression. The best thing to do since the dog is still young, is to marker train this dog and "socialize" it to the doorbell. Marker training is similar to clicker training except instead of YOU initiating an action the dog must follow to get a reward, the DOG initiates the action to make you give it the reward.

With a fearful dog like this you want to start from square one as if he was an 8 week old puppy. You can use a clicker, but we use the word "YES" as the mark, simply because you always have your voice and not always a clicker. Start in a calm, non stressful area of your home. When you dog looks at you, mark it with a YES (or click) and treat. We use cut up hotdogs, steak, chicken whatever we have leftovers of etc. It must be a high enough value treat to your dog, and some sort of meat always works best.
(small pieces, no bigger than your pinky or thumb nail depending on how big your dog is) Then if your dog sits, you mark it with a YES and treat. For any action your dog gives you that you like you mark it and treat. The mark is the YES or a click of a clicker.

Eventually you will see a lightbulb go off in your dogs head and he will get this and you will see that any time you begin a session he will start going through his repitoire of behaviors that he knew gave him treats in the past. It takes a dog a minimum of 30 times to reapeat anction before it becomes "ingrained" in his memory. For humans it's 7 times before we remember something, dogs it's 30. So once the behavior has become a learned behavior this is when it can be named. Once you reach this stage you can start naming each action, like "look," "sit," "down," etc... You may have to lure him into the position at first. by luring I mean for sit, say sit, have the treat in your hand and bring the treat over his head and back toward his ears. This will make his butt go down to a sit,then you mark (YES or click) and reward. HE already understands the action because you have practiced the action without naming it for several days,now you are naming the action. And in your dogs mind he goes, 'oh,ok I've done this before, I know how to 'sit'." And eventually the action melds with the word for the action. But in a manner that your dog understands 200%, and he's not just guessing what you want. It's basic operant conditioning, same that was used in Pavlov's dogs, and trainers for decades that train wildlife and sea life. Same exact thing.

So once he has reached this point you can start introducing the doorbell in the same way. Have your dog on a leash and your dad or someone outside to ring the bell. They don't have to come in but just ring the bell since the is the anxiety stressor. When the bell rings and he tries to run, don't let him,hold him steady and when he calms down mark it with a YES (or click) and treat. This will take a little work but eventually he will figure out that 'hey if I stay still and calm and not run away and freak when the bell rings I get a treat.' So you will repeat the above, ring, wait til he settles, mark and treat. I wouldn't do more than a few tries at a time because you want him to learn and not become overly stressed. So maybe only 2 or 3 times the first time. It all depends on how stressed he really becomes. Do it several times a day at small intervals. Eventually this light bulb will go off as well, and he will sooner or later be able to be off leash and calm when the bell rings.

If he gets severely stressed this will take a while, it's not an overnight fix and must be started with the basic marker training first so the dog understands you and the lines of communication between you and your dog are opened up in a manner he can understand.

monib1969
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Re: Dog park incident-Advice wanted

Post by monib1969 » Wed Jan 06, 2010 12:33 pm

i_are_chanel wrote:My dog Charlie is 7, going on 8, months old. I have been taking him to the dog park since he first had his shots, because I know how important it is to socialize your dog. He is a long haired chiuhuahua + dauchsand + papillion mix. He's about 10 lbs. My other dog is a golden retriever black lab mix, so he has never been afraid of other dogs at the dog park... :lol: But after reading the "Second fear factor" in this post, I am afraid that the incident that happend at the dog park yesterday may have more affect on him...

YES what you let happened will effect your dog 200%. This is why I and many trainers that truly understand that dogs are pack animals not social butterflies know that dog parks are a BAD idea. Whether one chooses to believe this or not, dogs are and always will be pack animals and will behave in the same manner dogs have behaved for thousands of years.

You little guy was 100% bullied by a bigger dog. This is not abnormal, espcially since he is still a puppy he will be less likely to be aggressive back, but not any longer as you have found out. His fearful barking is just that, and he may become aggressive toward other dogs approaching him for the rest of his life. People do not understand this. Socializing a dog does not mean he has to meet other dogs face to face. This is a bad idea. If you watch animal planet you see it all the time when two people put two strange dogs face to face. A trained person can see the posturing and immediate rank between the dogs being establsihed. If you have two dominant dogs you will see further posturing, aka one T'ing off over the other etc. (One dog stands over the others shoulders) This is an aggressive dominant posturing position. If the other dog doesn't submit, you will hear a little growl and may end up with a quick scuffle or out and out fight. This is pack behavior in it's true form.

Socializing your dog simply means that when he is away from his home territory he learns that there is outside stimuli in life. Such as other dogs, people, birds, cats, squirrels, cars etc.... and he simply needs to learn to become indifferent to them, or tune them out and ignore them. A non socialized dog will act like a nut anytime he sees something like another dog, he will bark, pull his owner down the street etc. a socialized dog that has learned to ignore this stimuli could care less who else around. That's true socialization. Not the "tree hugger" attempt of socializing we have today, which ends up with alot of dogs being labeled vicious dogs, when they are not, or if your state has a zero tolerance bite law, euthanized. All of which are 100% avoidable if people understood the genetic instincts of their furry little friend. These are all instinct that we will never be able to breed out of them, period.

Another example, if you take three house dogs from three different homes, put them out and let them run together with no human intervention. these 3 strangers (to each other) will eventually revert back to their survival instincts. First a leader will be decided, sometimes aggressively with a fight. Then you will have second dog, and the most submissive will be last in line. The other 2 will follow their leader, even into deadly situations, like trying to cross a lake or stream or into traffic. you will see all the classic pack behaviors in these dogs. It is an instinct they have and always will have. Same as the instincts for survival which tells your dog he must eat and drink, and his natural sexual instinct to make more puppies. These instincts are in every single living creature on this planet, your dog is no different.

With that being said, if I were you I would not take your little guy to a dog park ever again. His running and looking for protection should have come from you. I have and train working dogs that are highly aggressive when the need arises, but even if I am out on a walk with one of them and another dog approaches my dog I will take care of business and get rid of the dog. i will first verbally tell it to get away, and if the owner is present I will tell the owner to get his dog away or I'll do it for him. If the dog continues to approach, I have no problem spraying it with pepper spray or kicking it away. I will not let another dog near my dog, even though I know 100% my dog could easily kill this nuissance. That is your role as your dogs master and protector. Especially with a tiny little thing like you have. You are just lucky this bigger dog didn't injure or kill your puppy.

With such a tiny dog, you can buy a drag line (20ft cotton leash) keep your foot on the end of it and let him run around and away from the dangers of other dogs. This would be far safer than taking him to a dog park. But if you choose to continue to go to dog parks, I'd take pepper spray with you,and learn how to break up a fight without getting bit, by using the wheelbarrow grab. But remember it will only take a large dog, like my shepherds or Malinois' one good bite to kill a Chi, and this can happen in miliseconds.

Other than that, I would work on strengthening your bond with your little guy as I'm positive he has lost some faith in you and trust. If you marker train him (google marker training) you can rebuild a strong bond with him. And you will find that once you begin stimulating his mind he will also be less wild at home. Plus instead of taking him to a park where he learns to look to other people and dogs for fun. I would become his main source of fun. Have him and your other dog look to you for fun not other dogs which could end up harming him. This can be done with fun games like toss, hide and seek, tug play etc, all activities where they interact with you. Not only does it give them exercise, it helps build the bond between you and your dogs as well. So, remember mental stimulation works hand in hand with physical stimulation.

Good luck!!

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